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Applies to: GT4, TT, GTHD · Extension: .VOL · Endian: Little

The PS2 Volume is the first volume to under-go major changes to focus on file lookup speeds. It now uses a b-tree, and the headers are now encrypted.

Fake and Real Table of Contents

The volume may appear based on the GT3 header, but it's incorrect, the volume has a fake table of contents from GT3 at the beginning of it. This is supposedly to throw off any curious person and crash existing GT3 VOL tools back in the day from extracting GT4 files.

The real ToC is located further in the actual file - addressed by a page number (0x800 for each page)

  • GT4: 0x2159
  • GT4 MX-5 Demo: 0x2159
  • GT4 First Preview: 0x2159
  • Tourist Trophy Demo: 0x2231
  • Tourist Trophy: 0x2231
  • GT4 Online: 0x22B7

Size: 0x40

Field Offset Type Description
AC B9 90 AD or RoFS 0x00 UInt Magic, Enforced. Negated value = RoFS. If negated magic instead, volume is not encrypted
Version Major 0x04 ushort Should be 3
Version Minor 0x06 ushort Should be 1
Compressed Toc Length 0x08 int Size of the compressed toc (inflate algorithm)
Total Page Count 0x0C int Total pages taken by the header + toc to the data. HeaderOffset + (Pages * Length) = Data Start Offset
Page Length 0x10 ushort Size of one page. Should be 0x800
ToC Page Count 0x12 ushort Actual page count for the toc where entries are stored.
Padding 0x14 byte[0x2C] N/A
Page Offsets 0x40 int[Page Count + 1] Page Offsets within compressed page - always plus one to account for the end, size one page is calculated with (next - current)

Page Offsets

Next are page offsets - they are encrypted.

public const int OffsetCryptKey = 0x14ac327a;

public int GetEntryOffsetSecure(int pageIndex)
    VolumeStream.Position = TocOffset + TocHeader.HeaderSize + (pageIndex * 4);
    return VolumeStream.ReadInt32() ^ pageIndex * Volume.OffsetCryptKey + Volume.OffsetCryptKey;

Page Encryption/Decompression

Each ToC page is compressed and encrypted (only if the magic is also encrypted). It's a really cheap encryption (the key is 0x55 which is equal to 0b1010101, essentially just flipping every bit of the data).

public static readonly byte[] DataCryptKey = new byte[] { 0x55 };

public static byte[] XorEncript(byte[] data, byte[] key) {
    byte[] buffer = new byte[data.Length];
    int index = 0;
    for (int i = 0; i < data.Length; i++) {
        if (index < key.Length) {
        else {
            index = 1;
        buffer[i] = (byte)(data[i] ^ key[index - 1]);
    return buffer;


Pages may be an indexing page, or entry page. Nodes are always ordered for binary searching.

Field Offset Type Description
IsIndexPage 0x00 short Whether this is an indexing page
Entry Count 0x02 ushort Number of entries in this page (should be divided by two)
Next Page Index 0x04 int The index of the next page after this one
Previous Page Index 0x08 int The index of the previous page from this one

There is a ToC at the end of each page, read in reverse order. It contains the offset and length of each entry along with a terminator.

Structure as it would be difficult to document:

    int IndexEnd; // Final index/delimiter
        short EntryMetaOffset; // From start of this page
        short EntryMetaLength; // int + string

        if (IsIndexingBlock)
            int BlockIndexForEntry;
            short EntryTypeMetaOffset; // From start of this page
            short EntryTypeMetaLength;
    } TocBlockTableEntry[(EntryCount / 2)]; // Table is in reverse order
} TocEntryInfos; // Main TOC for this page, always at the bottom of each page in reverse order (for seeking purposes)

Entry Pages

Entry pages store the information for each files that it holds, nodes.

Each node are uniquely identified by a Node ID. Information concerning each node such as file size, compressed file size, modified date, and their location in the volume are included. A new page starts once the total of nodes in the page exceeds one page length (0x800 or the value in the header).


Field Type Description
Node Type byte Node Type. 0 = Directory, 1 = File, 2 = Compressed File

If directory:

  • Node ID (int) - Only if this is a directory

If file:

  • Page Offset (int) - Location of this file as page index
  • Modified Date (time_t) - Modified date of the file
  • Real Size (int) - Size of the file

If compressed file:

  • Page Offset (int) - Location of this file as page index
  • Modified Date (time_t) - Modified date of the file
  • Compressed Size (int) - Compressed size of the file
  • Real Size (int) - Size of the file

Indexing Pages

Indexing pages are used for searching. They contain the node IDs concatenated by names of each node that separates an entry page from another - the names are cut to the first difference between the two nodes. Index pages may also be used to separate other index pages, in that case you would have a master index page linking to index pages which then links to entry pages. In theory the hierarchy's depth can be more than that (GT4FS will support only one master index page), but should be more than enough to cover thousands upon thousands of nodes until this becomes a problem.

Last update: September 22, 2023
Created: September 22, 2023