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MDL3 / ModelSet3

Applies to: GT5, GTPSP, GT6 · Extension: .mdl / none · Endian: Big (GT5/GT6) · Little (GTPSP)

ModelSet3 is a direct upgrade to MDLS / ModelSet2. It still contains models with bytecode to set up which meshes to load and a virtual machine for callbacks. The main upgrade is that meshes now use flexible vertex definitions, bundled shaders and in the case of GT6, tesslated meshes and PMSH - packed meshes to save on memory usage.

It is a rather structured, yet complex format.

Structure (click to expand)

Size: 0xE4 (Version 14)

Field Offset Type Description
MDL3 or 3LDM 0x00 Int Magic, (Enforced, cannot be different), depends on endian (Little will be 3LDM)
File Size 0x04 Int File Size
Relocation Pointer 0x08 Int Relocation Pointer
Version Major 0x0C ushort Version Major for reading the file
Runtime Flags 0x0E ushort Flags assigned at runtime
Model Count 0x10 ushort Number of models in the set. Note that one model is more like a mesh group.
Model Key Count 0x12 ushort Number of model keys in the set. Models link directly to this. This is optional.
Mesh Count 0x14 ushort Number of meshes in the set.
Mesh Key Count 0x16 ushort Number of mesh keys in the set. Meshes link directly to this. This is optional.
FVF Count 0x18 ushort Number of flexible vertex definitions in the set. Meshes uses this.
Bones Count 0x1A ushort Number of bones in the set.
SizeFor0x68 0x1C ushort Unknown.
Host Method Count 0x1E ushort Number of host methods in the set. Linked to the virtual machine.
VM Stack Size 0x20 ushort Size of the virtual machine stack.
Count 0x5C 0x22 ushort Unknown count for 0x5C.
Unknown 0x24 ushort Unknown.
Count 0x78 0x26 ushort Unknown count for 0x78.
Count 0xA4 0x28 ushort Unknown count for 0xA4.
Count 0x54 0x2A ushort Unknown count for 0x54.
Count 0x88 0x2C ushort Unknown count for 0x88.
Unknown 0x2E ushort Unknown. Rather large value.
Models Pointer 0x30 Model* Pointer to the array of models.
Model Keys Pointer 0x34 ModelKey* Pointer to the array of model keys.
Meshes Pointer 0x38 Mesh* Pointer to the array of meshes.
Mesh Keys Pointer 0x3C MeshKey* Pointer to the array of mesh keys.
FVF Pointer 0x40 FVF* Pointer to the array of flexible vertex definitions.
Materials Pointer 0x44 MaterialInfo* Pointer to the material info structure.
Texture Set Pointer 0x48 TXS3* Pointer to the texture set. Used by materials.
Shaders Header Pointer 0x4C ShaderHeader* Pointer to the shader header.
Bones Pointer 0x50 Bone* Pointer to the bone array.
Unk 0x54 0x54 UnkKey0x54* Pointer to unknown keys.
Host Method Pointer 0x58 HostMethod* Pointer to host methods.
Unk 0x5C 0x5C void* Unknown pointer.
VM Opcodes Size 0x60 UInt Size of all the virtual machine opcodes.
VM Opcodes Offset 0x64 byte* Pointer to the start of the virual machine opcodes.
VM Instance Offset 0x68 byte* Pointer to the virtual machine instance. This is pre-allocated depending on combined stack size, used at runtime.
Relocation Pointer2 0x6C Int Unknown. May be a second relocation pointer.
Empty 0x70 Int N/A.
Runtime Value 0x74 Int Unknown. Set at runtime.
Unk 0x78 0x78 Unk0x78* Pointer to unknown. Stride is 0x14 per entry.
Unknown 0x7C UInt Unknown.
Empty 0x80 Int N/A.
Unknown Index 0x84 ushort ?
Unknown Index 0x86 ushort ?
Unk 0x88 0x88 Unk0x88* Pointer to unknown. Some entry in materials point to this aswell.
Unknown Index 0x8C ushort ?
Texture Type Count 0x8E ushort Number of texture keys in the set.
Texture Types Pointer 0x90 TextureKey* Pointer to the array of texture type names in the set.
Empty 0x94 Int N/A.
Wing Data Count 0x98 ushort Count of data (related to wings)
Wing Data Key Count 0x9A ushort Count of wing keys
Wing Data Pointer 0x9C WingData* Pointer to wing data
Wing Data Keys Pointer 0xA0 WingDataKey* Pointer to wing keys
Unk 0xA4 0xA4 Unk0xA8* Pointer to unknown. 0x04 Stride.
Empty 0xA8 Int N/A.
Shape Streaming Pointer 0xAC ShapeStreamInfo* Pointer to shape streaming info for courses.
Unk 0xB0 0xB0 Unk0xB0* Pointer to unknown. 0x40 Stride.
Unk 0xB4 0xB4 Int Unknown
Unk 0xB8 0xB8 void* Unknown pointer.
VM Context Pointer 0xBC void* VM Context pointer, 0x20 stride
Unk 0xC0 0xC0 void* Unknown pointer.
Count 0xC0 0xC4 ushort Count for 0xC0
Empty 0xC6 ushort N/A
Unk 0xC8 0xC8 short -1
Packed Mesh Key Count 0xCA ushort Count of keys for packed mesh
Packed Mesh Keys Pointer 0xCC PackedMeshKey* Pointer to packed mesh keys
Packed Mesh Hedr Pointer 0xCC PackedMeshHeader* Pointer to packed mesh header PMSH
Empty 0xD4 ushort N/A
Empty 0xD8 ushort N/A
Separate Data Info Ptr 0xDC SepDataInfo* Pointer to separate data info - for car streaming in GT6


Represents a model. Meshes linked to it are setup from the commands.

Size: 0x30

Field Offset Type Description
Unknown 0x00 float ?
Origin 0x04 Vector3 Origin position of this model
Unknown 0x10 byte ?
Unknown 0x11 byte ?
Bounds Count 0x12 ushort Number of vec3 components for the bounds
Bounds Pointer 0x14 Vector3 Pointer to the bounds of this model
Setup Commands Pointer 0x18 void* Pointer to the setup opcodes for this model.
Setup Commands Size 0x1C Int Size of the setup opcodes/commands.
VM Pointers 0x20 Int[3] Current VM pointers for each type.
Unknown 0x2C short Unknown. Maybe an index.
Unknown 0x2E ushort Unknown. Maybe flags.


Commands setup what meshes are linked to a model, but can also directly set RSX parameters (on PS3).

While PSP and PS3 GTs supports most opcodes, they also have their own (assigned with their unique opcode).

Refer to PDTools.Files for the commands.

Model Key

This is purely for debugging, they are not necessary. Keys contain the source path for the model.

Size: 0x08

Field Offset Type Description
Name Pointer 0x00 char* Pointer to the name of the key (Zero-terminated)
Model ID 0x04 Int Model ID.


Field Offset Type Description
Unknown 0x00 ushort Flags
FVF Index 0x02 short Flexible vertex definition to use for the mesh data. If empty, check PMSH.
Material Index 0x04 short Material index to use for this mesh.
Unknown 0x06 byte Unknown/Empty.
Unknown 0x07 byte Unknown/Empty.
Vertex Count 0x08 uint Number of verts in this mesh. If empty, check PMSH.
Vertex Pointer 0x0C byte* Pointer to the vertices. Must be read according to flexible vertices (if present).
Unknown 0x10 uint ?
Tri Length 0x14 uint Size of the tris. If empty, check PMSH.
Tri Pointer 0x18 short* Pointer to the tris. If empty, check PMSH.
Unknown 0x1C Int Unknown/Empty.
Unknown 0x20 Int Unknown/Empty.
Unknown 0x24 short Unknown/Empty.
Tri Count 0x26 short Number of tris. If empty, check PMSH.
Boundary Box Pointer 0x28 Vector3* Pointer to the boundary box. If empty, check PMSH.
PMSH Reference Pointer 0x2C PMSHRef* Pointer to some PMSH indicator.


Size: 0x34

Field Offset Type Description
Unknown/Empty 0x00 Int[12] N/A
PMSH Index 0x30 Int Packed Mesh entry to use.

Model Key

This is purely for debugging, they are not necessary. Keys contain the source path for the mesh.

Size: 0x08

Field Offset Type Description
Name Pointer 0x00 char* Pointer to the name of the key (Zero-terminated)
Mesh ID 0x04 Int Mesh ID.

FVF / Flexible Vertex Definition

Addressed by meshes.

Size: 0x78

Field Offset Type Description
Name Pointer 0x00 char* Name/Type of FVF. Important - usually "Flex".
Shader Related Index 0x04 short Partially known to be an index to shaders.
Field Def Offset 0x08 FVFField* Pointer to the FVF fields composing this FVF. i.e describes map12 which is UVs.
Unknown Index 0x0C short Some index assigned at runtime.
Empty 0x0E short N/A
Unknown 0x10 Int Unknown/Empty.
Unk 0x14 0x14 Unk0x14* Pointer to unknown.
Field Def Count 0x18 byte Number of fields in this FVF structure.
FVF Structure Size 0x19 byte Size of the FVF structure with all the fields combined essentially the size of one vert.
Empty 0x1A short N/A
Empty/Runtime Data 0x1C byte[0x58] N/A
Field Array Pointer 0x74 FVFArrayDef* Array definition pointer


Last update: September 22, 2023
Created: September 22, 2023